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Role of spleen in prolonged anxiety after stress
Scientists are uncovering clues to what might be unfolding in the relationship between the brain and immune system in those who suffer from long-term repercussions of stress.
New research details those connections, specifically that an abundance of white blood cells in the spleen could be sending messages to the brain that result in behavioral changes long after mice experience repeated stress.
"We found that immune cells in the spleen can contribute to chronic anxiety following psychological stress," said Daniel McKim, a graduate student at The Ohio State University and the lead author of the study.
"Our findings emphasize the possibility that the immune system represents a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of mental health conditions."
The research was part of a series of related studies presented Nov. 13 in San Diego at Neuroscience 2016, the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience.
McKim's co-authors and advisers, John Sheridan and Jonathan Godbout, are working toward explaining the complicated interplay between immunity and stress in animals that have experienced "repeated social defeat" in an effort to eventually improve the well-being of people who experience chronic psychological stress. Sheridan is associate director of Ohio State's Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research and a professor of biosciences. Godbout is an associate professor of neuroscience.
In this study, the trio of scientists determined that the immune cell changes persisted for almost a month after the mice experienced the stress.
"Stress appears to prompt the release of stem cells from the bone marrow to the spleen, where they develop into white blood cells, or monocytes, and expand over time," Godbout said.
"Then the spleen becomes a reservoir of inflammatory cells."
Sheridan said the spleen is now understood to be integral to the sensitization that happens after prolonged stress in mice, leading to anxiety and other cognitive problems down the road.
"It's like a stress memory," Godbout said.
In their previous work, Ohio State researchers have documented an increased prevalence of long-term anxiety and depression in mice exposed to chronic stress, a model that has been compared to post-traumatic stress disorder in people.
"Maybe anxiety is a good thing for survival -- it's beneficial evolutionarily -- but the issue becomes what happens when that system is put into overdrive. That's when it gets problematic," Godbout said.
Added Sheridan, "We're beginning to piece together more details about the bi-directional communication between the brain and the body and the body and the brain."
The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health.
Ohio State University. "Role of spleen in prolonged anxiety after stress." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161113154748.htm (accessed November 17, 2016).
Massage and Menopause
Traverse this Rite of Passage with a Helping Hand
Understanding the difference between hot flashes and night sweats is one of the bittersweet burdens every woman bears in life, but comradery doesn't make it any easier. Experts say we are in the midst of a giant "meno-boom" today, with more than 40 million U.S. women in the throes of this midlife rite of passage we know as menopause. The good news is there are many natural ways to make the transition a little easier for all of us.
According to a recent Cox News report, approximately 4,000 women enter menopause each day. The need for comfort and relief for these women follows them from the first stages of perimenopause through to the final transition.
Menopause is certainly not an easy passage for women or their partners. Those infamous hot flashes are the most recognizable symptom, but the effects of menopause include a host of other problems: dry skin, night sweats, poor memory, urinary incontinence, insomnia, anxiety, mood swings, headaches/migraines, bone loss, erratic menstrual cycles, vaginal dryness, painful intercourse and depression. For women in the midst of change, menopause is a daunting laundry list of symptoms that only seems to produce greater challenges each day.
Taking Menopause Back
Monica Brown, spa consultant and former director of the Greenbrier Spa Mineral Baths and Salon, said it's important to remember the resources available to women during this often tumultuous time. "Just as childbirth and death have been taken back from the medical community and given over to birthing coaches, midwives and hospice organizations, menopause, too, can generally be a natural passage for the vast majority of American women." She said nurturing and the healing power of touch are two valuable components in a treatment regimen for today's menopausal woman.
"Massage therapists and bodyworkers, whose purpose is to touch, nurture and heal, are in a perfect position to fill this need." Whether you look for help from your massage therapist, bodyworker or local day spa, there are numerous therapies that can diminish the worst of the symptoms and improve your ability to deal with the challenges you're still sure to face. Here's what some therapists are offering their menopausal clients:
- Massage or Craniosacral Therapy with special attention being paid to the abdomen and lower back.
- Relaxation techniques, including yoga, to alleviate stress.
- Aromatherapy massage and treatments with Clary Sage.
- Seaweed baths, body wraps for dry, sensitive skin.
- Acupressure to re-balance hormonal systems, as well as shiatsu and lymphatic drainage.
- Hydrotherapy algae baths to detoxify and re-balance the body.
- Reflexology as a natural alternative to synthetic hormones.
Besides the physical and emotional comfort, a woman going through the life-changing forces of menopause can find the oft-needed reassurance of her strength, beauty and womanliness in massage and spa treatments. It offers both a time for solace and inner thought, as well as a chance to attend solely to her body and spirit. Don't underestimate the very basic need for comfort and support that can be so important in a hormone-ravaged body.
It's Still About Stress
An Internet-based survey recently found a correlation between stress and menopausal symptoms -- the greater the stress, the greater the symptoms. It only makes sense to implement as many stress-reducing activities as possible, which puts massage and spa therapies at the top of the list.
Ask your therapist what they can do to help you through this trying time. Venture into a nearby spa to see if they offer any special services for menopausal women, as many facilities across the country do. And don't forget your own role in the process. Recognize your symptoms; find ways to walk away from stress; attend to your physical, emotional and spiritual needs; research your options; and above all else, relax. As they say, this too shall pass.
By Karrie Osborn
Originally published in Body Sense magazine, Fall 2002.
Associated Bodywork and Massage Professionals. All rights reserved.
Vela Bodywork is happy to introduce an easier way to schedule and manage your appointments with online booking. Visit the "Appointments" page to schedule a session today!
"Adapting to Stress: Understanding the Neurobiology of Resilience," an article recently published in Behavioral Medicine, examines the way our bodies, specifically our brains, become "stress-resilient." There is a significant variation in the way individuals react and respond to extreme stress and adversity -- some individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder or major depressive disorder -- others recover from stressful experiences without displaying significant symptoms of psychological ill-health, demonstrating stress-resilience
To understand why some individuals exhibit characteristics of a resilient profile, the interplay between neurochemical, genetic, and epigenetic processes over time needs to be explained. In this review, the authors examine the hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and neural circuits associated with resilience and vulnerability to stress-related disorders.
About the importance of their article, the authors state: "In a period of international conflict as well as domestic pressures within the NHS, the study of stress and resilience has again become a prescient topic for both military and medical communities. The experience of extreme or prolonged stress does not necessarily result in mental health problems, which is an increasingly overlooked point and one of real significance to the field of psychopathology. Scientific evidence has consistently shown us that a high number of individuals are able to overcome stress and adversity and to continue on with productive lives. In this review, we summarize some of the latest findings underlying the neurobiology of resilience, which we hope will advance the understanding and treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders."
Carlos Osório, Thomas Probert, Edgar Jones, Allan H. Young, Ian Robbins. Adapting to Stress: Understanding the Neurobiology of Resilience. Behavioral Medicine, 2016; 1 DOI: 10.1080/08964289.2016.1170661
University of Toronto,
A new study from King's College London offers clues as to why chronic pain can persist, even when the injury that caused it has gone. Although still in its infancy, this research could explain how small and seemingly innocuous injuries leave molecular 'footprints' which add up to more lasting damage, and ultimately chronic pain.
All of us are likely to know someone who suffers from persistent pain -- it is a very common condition, which can be caused by sports injuries, various diseases and the process of ageing. Treatment options are limited and doctors are often unable to offer anything more than partial relief with painkillers, leaving their patients resigned to suffering.
While chronic pain can have many different causes, the outcome is often the same: an overly sensitive nervous system which responds much more than it normally would. However, a question still remains as to why the nervous system should remain in this sensitive state over long periods of time, especially in instances where the underlying injury or disease has gone.
Researchers from King's sought to answer this question by examining immune cells in the nervous system of mice, which are known to be important for the generation of persistent pain.
In the study, published today in Cell Reports, they found that nerve damage changes epigenetic marks on some of the genes in these immune cells. Epigenetics is the process that determines which gene is expressed and where. Some epigenetic signals have direct functional consequences, while others are just primers: flags that indicate a potential to act or be modified.
The cells examined in this King's study still behaved as normal, but the existence of these novel epigenetic marks may mean that they carry a 'memory' of the initial injury.
Dr Franziska Denk, first author of the study, from the Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London, said: 'We are ultimately trying to reveal why pain can turn into a chronic condition. We already knew that chronic pain patients have nerves that are more active, and we think this is probably due to various proteins and channels in those nerves having different properties.
However, it is unclear why these nerves should remain in this overactive, highly sensitive state, even when the initial injury or disease has gone: the back pain from two years ago that never quite went away or the joints that are still painful despite your rheumatoid arthritis being in remission.'
Dr Denk added: 'We want to know why these proteins and channels should maintain their altered function over such a long period of time. Cells have housekeeping systems by which the majority of their content are replaced and renewed every few weeks and months -- so why do crucial proteins keep being replaced by malfunctioning versions of themselves? Our study is the very first step towards trying to answer this question by exploring the possibility that changes in chronic pain may persist because of epigenetics. We hope that future research in this area could help in the search for novel therapeutic targets.'
Professor Stephen McMahon from the IoPPN at King's College London said: 'This research raises many interesting questions: do neurons also acquire epigenetic footprints as a result of nerve injury? Do these molecular footprints affect the function of proteins? And are they ultimately the reason that chronic pain persists in patients over such long periods of time?
'The last question is particularly hard to answer, because to study epigenetics we need access to pure cell populations. Obviously, many of these are only accessible in postmortem tissue. However, colleagues at King's are already doing this in psychiatry, through studies such as the The PsychENCODE project, so it is possible.'
Dr Giovanna Lalli, Neuroscience & Mental Health Senior Portfolio Developer at the Wellcome Trust, which part-funded the study, said: 'People develop chronic pain for a huge variety of reasons. We therefore need an equally diverse range of treatments to tackle the different root causes.
'The clues from this study, suggesting epigenetic changes may be involved in pain persisting, will hopefully lead us to better understand the mechanisms underlying chronic pain.'
This research was funded by the Wellcome Trust and an MRC ERA-NET Neuron grant.
Vela Bodywork will be closed 8/30 through 9/7 for a camping trip! Enjoy the holiday weekend!
Lyme disease is transmitted by the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus), and the range of these ticks is spreading, according to research published in the Journal of Medical Entomology.
Some symptoms of Lyme disease include fever, headache, and fatigue, all of which can be mistaken for the common flu, so medical personnel need to know where these ticks are found in order to make a correct diagnosis. Unfortunately, the range of blacklegged ticks had not been re-evaluated in nearly two decades, until now.
Dr. Rebecca Eisen, a research biologist at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, observed that the last comprehensive survey of blacklegged tick distribution was published in 1998. To remedy this, she and her colleagues performed a new survey to establish the current geographic distribution.
The team used surveillance methods similar to those used in 1998 so that they would be able to accurately judge the degree to which the distribution of these ticks had changed. Using the gathered data, they figured out which counties had established populations, which ones had one or more reports of a blacklegged ticks, and which ones had none.
They found that the blacklegged tick has been reported in more than 45% of U.S. counties, compared to 30% of counties in 1998. Even more alarming, the blacklegged tick is now considered established in twice the number of counties as in 1998.
Most of the geographic expansion of the blacklegged tick appears to be in the northern U.S., while populations in southern states have remained relatively stable. The range of the western blacklegged tick only increased from 3.4% to 3.6% of counties.
"This study shows that the distribution of Lyme disease vectors has changed substantially over the last nearly two decades and highlights areas where risk for human exposure to ticks has changed during that time," Dr. Eisen said. "The observed range expansion of the ticks highlights a need for continuing and enhancing vector surveillance efforts, particularly along the leading edges of range expansion."
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Vela Bodywork is excited to offer the Lymphstar!
The Lymphstar uses light (photonic) and sound (harmonics) with noble gas ionization that enhances movement of lymphatic fluids and assists in the detoxification of the lymphatic system.
The Lymphstar utilizes vibrational energy to emit signals to the cells of the body through sound and light. Signals are created through a process known as noble gas ionization and are excited by an electrical current. An energy field then radiates from the hand held wand onto the skin, stimulating lymphatic movement and drainage.
The Lymphstar enhances the flow of blood, lymphatic drainage and bio-energy to enhance the body's natural detoxification system.
Benefits of the Lymphstar include:
- Improves edemas, fibrotic conditions, and swollen lymph nodes.
- Some conditions reported to have benefited from therapy include breast lumps, inflammation, chronic pain, joint aches, allergies, sinus, respiratory problems, headaches, prostate problems, hormone imbalance and chronic female conditions, dental trauma and chronic problems, heavy metal toxicity, neuromuscular trauma, immune and fatigue syndromes.
- Excellent complement to manual lymph drainage techniques to open the lymph system, improve fluid flow and stimulate decongestion of tissues.
- Reduction of pain due to lymphatic conditions.
- Provides relaxation, emotional balance, increased energy and feelings of well being.
- Cosmetic enhancement by the reduction of fluid deposits in the face, healthier skin, supporting all cellulite reduction therapies, & post-procedures such as micro-dermabrasion.
Great video on healthy muscles!
Your skin is the largest organ in your body and plays an important role in detoxification. This vital organ can often show warning signs for internal imbalances. Collectively weighing almost twice as much as your liver the skin receives 1/3 of the blood circulating in the body. The skin:
- Acts as a protective barrier against viruses and bacteria
- Helps in elimination of metabolic waste products from the body
- Promotes absorption by assimilating oxygen and other nutrients
- Works as a respiratory organ
- Regulates body temperature
While your skin acts as the first line of defense in protecting the body, it is important to remember that it is a living, breathing organ and substances that are absorbed by it travel to your lymphatic and blood systems. It is the job of the liver and kidneys to neutralize any adverse effects from exposure to chemical or environmental toxins. Chronic or daily exposure to environmental pollutants and chemical toxins can negatively impact your health, whether absorbed through your skin or lungs.
Skin is often referred to as a third kidney as it works directly with the kidneys in promoting water balance. The skin has hundreds of pores per square inch that require stimulation from tiny muscles that play an important role in supporting detoxification. Detoxification happens with the help of several organs, the liver, colon, lungs, kidneys and skin all work in tandem to cleanse and heal the body. Dry brushing not only promotes healthy and vibrant skin but also:
- Exfoliation assists in removing dead skin cells and encouraging cell renewal
- Cleansing the pores helps your skin to absorb nutrients by eliminating clogged pores
- Stimulate the hormone and oil-producing glands
- Help keep skin soft and supple
- Improves blood circulation and lymphatic drainage by releasing metabolic waste products and encourages the body's natural cleanup systems.
- Help control cellulite by developing better muscle tone and distribution of fat cells.
- Uplifting effect on the nervous system through stimulation of nerve endings
- Generally helps improve health and vibrancy
How to Dry Brush
- Use a natural bristle brush daily for best results.
- Starting with the feet and ankles brush gently in smooth circular movement upward toward the heart – lymphatic fluid flows upward through the body.
- Move up to the lower legs, thighs, stomach, back, neck and arms using long smooth strokes.
- Be careful around soft sensitive skin around the breasts. Never brush over inflamed skin.
- Clean your brush every few days with soap and warm water.